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இந்தியாவில் தாய் சேய் இறப்பு விகிதம் / Status of IMR and MMR in India

TAMIL
  • இந்திய தலைமை பதிவாளரின் மாதிரி பதிவு அமைப்பு அறிக்கையின்படி, குழந்தை இறப்பு விகிதம் 2015-ல் 1000 பிறப்புகளுக்கு 37ல் இருந்து 2019-ல் தேசிய அளவில் 1,000 பிறப்புகளுக்கு 30 ஆகக் குறைந்துள்ளது.
  • தமிழ்நாட்டில் 2015-ல் 19 ஆக இருந்த 1000 பிறப்புகளுக்கான இறப்பு விகிதம், 2016ல் 17 ஆகவும், 2017-ல் 16 ஆகவும், 2018-ல் 15 ஆகவும், 2019-ல் 15 ஆகவும் இருந்தது.
  • இந்திய தலைமை பதிவாளரின் மாதிரி பதிவு அமைப்பு அறிக்கையின் படி, தாய்மார்கள் இறப்பு விகிதம் 2015-17-ல் 8.1-ல் இருந்து 2016-18-ல் தேசிய அளவில் 7.3 ஆகக் குறைந்துள்ளது.
  • தமிழ்நாட்டில் 2015-17-ல் 4.8 ஆக இருந்த தாய்மார்கள் இறப்பு விகிதம், 2016-18-ல் 3.2 ஆக இருந்தது. தாய் சேய் இறப்பு விகிதத்தை குறைப்பதற்காக அனைத்து மாநிலங்கள் மற்றும் யூனியன் பிரதேசங்களுக்கு மத்திய சுகாதாரம் மற்றும் குடும்ப நல அமைச்சகம் ஆதரவளித்து வருகிறது. பல்வேறு திட்டங்களும் செயல்படுத்தப்பட்டு வருகின்றன.
ENGLISH
  • According to a report by the Chief Registrar of India, the infant mortality rate has dropped from 37 per 1000 births in 2015 to 30 per 1,000 births nationally in 2019. The death rate per 1000 births in Tamil Nadu was 19 in 2015, 17 in 2016, 16 in 2017, 15 in 2018 and 15 in 2019.
  • According to the report of the Chief Registrar of India, the maternal mortality rate has declined from 8.1 in 2015-17 to 7.3 nationally in 2016-18.
  • The maternal mortality rate in Tamil Nadu was 4.8 in 2015-17 and 3.2 in 2016-18. The Federal Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has been supporting all states and union territories to reduce maternal mortality. Various projects are also being implemented.
Interventions for improving Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)
  • Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a demand promotion and conditional cash transfer scheme was launched in April 2005 with the objective of reducing Maternal and Infant Mortality by promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women.
  • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) aims to eliminate out-of-pocket expenses for pregnant women and sick infants by entitling them to free delivery including caesarean section, free transport, diagnostics, medicines, other consumables, diet and bloodin public health institutions.
  • SurakshitMatratvaAshwasan (SUMAN) aims to provide assured, dignified, respectful and quality healthcare at no cost and zero tolerance for denial of services for every woman and newborn visiting the public health facility to end all preventable maternal and newborn deaths.
  • Pradhan MantriSurakshitMatritvaAbhiyan (PMSMA) provides pregnant women fixed day, free of cost assured and quality Antenatal Careon the 9thday of every month.
  • LaQshya aims to improve the quality of care in labour room and maternity operation theatres to ensure that pregnant women receive respectful and quality care during delivery and immediate post-partum period.
  • Comprehensive Abortion Care services are strengthened through trainings of health care providers, supply of drugs, equipment, Information Education and Communication (IEC) etc.
  • Midwifery programme is launched to create a cadre for Nurse Practitioners in Midwifery who are skilled in accordance to International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) competencies and capable of providing compassionate women-centred, reproductive, maternal and new-born health care services.
  • Delivery Points-Over 25,000 ‘Delivery Points’ across the country are strengthened in terms of infrastructure, equipment, and trained manpower for provision of comprehensive RMNCAH+N services.
  • Functionalization of First Referral Units (FRUs)by ensuring manpower, blood storage units, referral linkages etc.
  • Setting up of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Wings at high caseload facilities to improve the quality of care provided to mothers and children.
  • Operationalization of Obstetric ICU/HDU at high case load tertiary care facilities across country to handle complicated pregnancies.
  • Capacity building is undertaken for MBBS doctors in Anesthesia (LSAS) and Obstetric Care including C-section (EmOC) skills to overcome the shortage of specialists in these disciplines, particularly in rural areas.
  • Maternal Death Surveillance Review (MDSR) is implemented both at facilities and at the community level. The purpose is to take corrective action at appropriate levels and improve the quality of obstetric care.
  • Monthly Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Day (VHSND) is an outreach activity for provision of maternal and child care including nutrition.
  • Regular IEC/BCC activities are conducted for early registration of ANC, regular ANC, institutional delivery, nutrition, and care during pregnancy etc.
  • MCP Card and Safe Motherhood Booklet are distributed to the pregnant women for educating them on diet, rest, danger signs of pregnancy, benefit schemes and institutional deliveries.
Interventions for improving Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
  • Facility Based New-born Care:Sick New-born Care Units (SNCUs) are established at District Hospital and Medical College level, New-born Stabilization Units (NBSUs) are established at First Referral Units (FRUs)/ Community Health Centres (CHCs) for care of sick and small babies.
  • Community Based care of New-born and Young Children:Under Home Based New-born Care (HBNC) and Home-Based Care of Young Children (HBYC) program, home visits are performed by ASHAs to improve child rearing practices and to identify sick new-born and young children in the community.
  • Mothers’ Absolute Affection (MAA):Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for first six months and appropriate Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices are promoted under Mothers’ Absolute Affection (MAA).
  • Social Awareness and Actions to Neutralize Pneumonia Successfully (SAANS) initiative implemented since 2019 for reduction of Childhood morbidity and mortality due to Pneumonia.
  • Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is implemented to provide vaccination to children against life threatening diseases such as Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Polio, Tetanus, Hepatitis B, Measles, Rubella, Pneumonia and Meningitis caused by Haemophilus Influenzae B. The Rotavirus vaccination has also been rolled out in the country for prevention of Rota-viral diarrhoea. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) has been introduced in all the States and UTs.
  • Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakaram (RBSK): Children from 0 to 18 years of age are screened for 30 health conditions (i.e. Diseases, Deficiencies, Defects and Developmental delay) under Rashtriya Bal SwasthyaKaryakaram (RBSK) to improve child survival. District Early Intervention Centres (DEICs) at district health facility level are established for confirmation and management of children screened under RBSK.
  • Nutrition Rehabilitation Centres (NRCs)are set up at public health facilities to treat and manage the children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) admitted with medical complications.
  • Intensified Diarrhoea Control Fortnight / Defeat Diarrhoea (D2) initiative implemented for promoting ORS and Zinc use and for reducing diarrhoeal deaths.
  • Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy as a part of POSHANAbhiyan aims to strengthen the existing mechanisms and foster newer strategies to tackle anaemia which include testing & treatment of anaemia in school going adolescents & pregnant women, addressing non nutritional causes of anaemia and a comprehensive communication strategy.
  • Capacity Building: Several capacity building programs of health care providers are taken up for improving maternal and child survival and health outcomes.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

S. No.

National/ State/ UT

Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births)

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

ALL INDIA

37

34

33

32

30

1

Andhra Pradesh

37

34

32

29

25

2

A&N Islands

20

16

14

9

7

3

Arunachal Pradesh

30

36

42

37

29

4

Assam

47

44

44

41

40

5

Bihar

42

38

35

32

29

6

Chandigarh

21

14

14

13

13

7

Chhattisgarh

41

39

38

41

40

8

D&N Haveli

21

17

13

13

11

9

Daman & Diu

18

19

17

16

17

10

Delhi

18

18

16

13

11

11

Goa

9

8

9

7

8

12

Gujarat

33

30

30

28

25

13

Haryana

36

33

30

30

27

14

Himachal Pradesh

28

25

22

19

19

15

J & K including Ladakh

26

24

23

22

20

16

Jharkhand

32

29

29

30

27

17

Karnataka

28

24

25

23

21

18

Kerala

12

10

10

7

6

19

Lakshadweep

20

19

20

14

8

20

Madhya Pradesh

50

47

47

48

46

21

Maharashtra

21

19

19

19

17

22

Manipur

9

11

12

11

10

23

Meghalaya

42

39

39

33

33

24

Mizoram

32

27

15

5

3

25

Nagaland

12

12

7

4

3

26

Odisha

46

44

41

40

38

27

Puducherry

11

10

11

11

9

28

Punjab

23

21

21

20

19

29

Rajasthan

43

41

38

37

35

30

Sikkim

18

16

12

7

5

31

Tamil Nadu

19

17

16

15

15

32

Telangana

34

31

29

27

23

33

Tripura

20

24

29

27

21

34

Uttar Pradesh

46

43

41

43

41

35

Uttarakhand

34

38

32

31

27

36

West Bengal

26

25

24

22

20


Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)

India/ States

2015-17

2016-18

ALL INDIA

8.1

7.3

Andhra Pradesh

3.6

3.6

Assam

15.2

14.0

Bihar

16.9

15.1

Jharkhand

6.1

5.6

Gujarat

6.0

5.1

Haryana

7.7

7.0

Karnataka

7.3

4.9

Kerala

1.9

2.1

Madhya Pradesh

17.5

15.9

Chhattisgarh

11.0

12.1

Maharashtra

3.3

2.6

Odisha

11.1

9.7

Punjab

6.8

7.0

Rajasthan

16.8

14.5

Tamil Nadu

4.8

3.2

Telangana

3.8

3.6

Uttar Pradesh

20.1

17.8

Uttarakhand

5.9

6.4

West Bengal

5.0

5.0

Other States

4.7

4.5


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